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The Role of CO2 in Ideal Growing Conditions

The world's population continues to grow, and with it, the demand for food production is steadily increasing. To meet this demand sustainably, farmers and agricultural researchers are continually seeking ways to optimize crop growth and maximize yields. One crucial factor that plays a pivotal role in achieving greater yields is to control the growing conditions for food. Water, sunlight and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the input from plant growth.



CO2: The Building Block of Plant Growth

Carbon dioxide is a fundamental component of the photosynthetic process, the driving force behind plant growth. During photosynthesis, plants absorb CO2 from the atmosphere through small holes called stoma in each and every leave, along with sunlight and water, to produce glucose (sugar) and oxygen. This process provides the energy and core construction materials necessary for plants to grow, develop, and produce the food we rely on.


Optimal CO2 Levels for Plant Growth

For centuries the concentration of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere has hovered around 280 parts per million (ppm). However, human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation, have led to an increase in atmospheric CO2 levels. As of last update in September 2021, atmospheric CO2 concentrations had already surpassed 410 ppm.


While this rise in CO2 is a significant concern regarding climate change, it also has a noteworthy impact on agriculture. Studies have shown that increased CO2 levels can enhance plant growth under certain conditions.


Typically, the following trends are observed:

  1. Improved Photosynthesis: Elevated CO2 levels can stimulate photosynthesis, leading to increased plant growth rates. This effect is particularly pronounced in C3* plants, which include many staple food crops like wheat, rice, and soybeans.

  2. Enhanced Water Use Efficiency: Plants grown in elevated CO2 environments often exhibit improved water use efficiency. They can achieve the same level of growth while using less water, making them more resilient to drought conditions.

  3. Increased Crop Yields: Elevated CO2 levels can lead to higher crop yields in some cases, especially when other growth-limiting factors such as nutrient availability and temperature are optimized.

  4. Alterations in Nutrient Content: While elevated CO2 can boost crop yields, it may also affect the nutrient content of the harvested crops. Some studies suggest that higher CO2 levels can lead to lower nutrient concentrations in crops, potentially impacting their nutritional quality.


Harnessing CO2 for Ideal Growing Conditions

Farmers and researchers have explored various strategies to harness elevated CO2 levels for food production while mitigating potential negative effects. Here are some approaches:

  1. Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA): CEA systems, such as greenhouses and vertical farms, enable precise control of CO2 concentrations, temperature, and humidity. This allows growers to maintain optimal CO2 levels for specific crops, promoting year-round production and maximizing yields.

  2. Crop Breeding: Plant breeding programs can develop crop varieties that are better adapted to higher CO2 levels, ensuring that future food crops can thrive in changing environmental conditions.

  3. Nutrient Management: To counteract potential reductions in nutrient content, farmers can adjust nutrient management practices to maintain the nutritional quality of crops grown in elevated CO2 environments.

  4. Carbon Capture and Utilization: Innovative technologies that capture CO2 emissions from industrial processes and repurpose them for agricultural use are emerging. These technologies have the potential to provide a sustainable source of CO2 for crop enhancement.


As the world faces the challenge of feeding a growing population, understanding and managing CO2 concentrations in agricultural settings is of paramount importance. Elevated CO2 levels can offer significant benefits for crop growth and yield, but they also present challenges related to nutrient content and environmental sustainability.


Over the coming months Apex will be embarking on some inhouse research on carbon sequestration for the purposes of plant growth. Using a rechargeable catalyst we aim to increase the availability of CO2 for controlled environments to increase the CO2 directed toward plants and have that increase growth without the need for "creating CO2".



*C3 plants makes up the majority of plant in the world and describes the first process involving CO2 and contains 3 Carbon atoms "https://study.com/learn/lesson/c3-plants-overview-examples.html#:~:text=C3%20Photosynthesis,-These%20types%20of&text=The%20Calvin%20cycle%20takes%20place,and%20soybean%20are%20also%20C3."

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